Currently, cognitive dissonance can cause discomfort, stress, and anxiety. And the degree of these effects often depends on the magnitude of the gap between conflicting beliefs, the meaning of the beliefs for that person, as well as how the person handles self-contradictions. Physiological needs form the basis of the hierarchy of needs. The closer the needs are to the base, the more important they are for human survival. The speakers do not meet physiological needs. After all, it is unlikely that a person who has no food, air or water will want to do persuasion, and it would not be ethical to deny or promise these things to someone in order to make a convincing profit. Some speakers try to appeal to the needs of self-realization, but I maintain that it is ethically difficult. Self-realization refers to our need to reach our highest potential, and these needs are much more intrapersonal than others. We reach our highest potential through things that are individual to us, and these are often things we protect from strangers. Some examples are the pursuit of higher education and intellectual fulfillment, the pursuit of art or music, or the pursuit of religious or spiritual fulfillment. These are often things we do ourselves and for ourselves, so I like to think of it as sacred ground to leave alone. Speakers are more likely to succeed in focusing on safety, social issues, and self-esteem.
Then you go shopping and discover a jar of edible cookie dough that you put in your basket and think that it is only here and there that you will only have a full spoonful. Even if you buy it, you know you shouldn`t have it because, well, sabotage. And that`s where discomfort, guilt, and shame set in. Cognitive dissonance is not a convincing single strategy. As we have learned, people are resistant to change and not easy to convince. While we may think that exposure to conflicting information would change a rational person`s mind, people are not as rational as we think. Dissonance can be reduced by changing existing beliefs, adding new beliefs, or minimizing the meaning of beliefs. Take, for example, an example suggested by Festinger: a heavy smoker who knows that smoking is bad for his health will experience dissonance because he continues to breathe. It can reduce dissonance by: Examining key points: There is a clear need for prisoner training that can be met by a robust program that benefits prisoners, those working in prisons, and society as a whole.
This is what causes the dissonance. The more attractive or similar the two alternatives, the more cognitive dissonance you feel. To reduce this dissonance, people end up justifying their decisions, even in situations where they have clearly made the worst decision. A similar mistake is called ignoring the question, which differs slightly from the question in the degree of information offered. If a person tells you that you should make an investment that can bring in two hundred percent profit, then the person does not know what other types of returns on investment (or profits) have made other investments, and the person does not know what other types of profit or loss scenarios exist in the company. Assuming that he could not find concrete information that led him to change the belief that smoking is harmful to his health, our friend has the opportunity to quit smoking. Unfortunately, our friend is addicted to smoking, so it will be difficult for him to quit smoking. Just like our friend, many people fail to eliminate dissonance by changing their actions or behavior. This is because it is not easy to change well-learned behaviors. Emotional calls are also difficult for some because they require refined delivery skills and the ability to use words in powerful and dramatic ways.
The ability to use vocal diversity, cadence and repetition to evoke the emotions of an audience is not easy to achieve. Remember how Martin Luther King Jr.`s moving “I Have a Dream” speech was due to his ability to evoke the emotions of the audience. Dr. King used powerful and creative language in conjunction with his voice to deliver one of the most famous speeches in our history. Using concrete, descriptive examples can paint a picture in the minds of your audience. Speakers can also use text images displayed with visual aids to address pathos. Thesis statement: There should be education in all prisons, as denying prisoners an education has negative consequences for the prisoner and society, while providing training offers benefits for the prisoner and society. The following pages provide you with several effective ways to organize information in your trials. Often, when you know who your audience is and what your purpose for writing is (which is called your rhetorical situation), you can start considering the organization of what will be in your article, how to present your article, and what to write for your conclusion. The following rhetorical models will help you answer these questions. For example, someone who buys an expensive shoe in a luxury store, when he could have bought the same shoe at a lower price in another store, convinces himself that the cheaper shoe is a fake to justify his purchase, even if there is no difference between the shoes.
The following problems with word language can help you identify certain types of language use in arguments: Signs that you may experience cognitive dissonance include: discomfort of unclear origin, confusion, feeling of conflict over a controversial topic, people telling you that you are a hypocrite or aware of conflicting views and/or desires but don`t know, what to do with it. Speakers should strive to address ethics, logos and pathos in a speech. A discourse based primarily on ethics might lead an audience to think that a speaker is full of themselves. A speech full of facts and statistics that use logos would lead to a flood of information. Speakers who rely primarily on calls for pathos may be seen as too passionate, biased, or unable to see other points of view. Mary Fisher`s speech at the 1992 Republican National Convention, “A Whisper of AIDS,” is one of the most moving and powerful speeches of recent decades. She uses more than once all the persuasive strategies discussed in this chapter. The video and transcript of his speech can be found at the following link: www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/maryfisher1992rnc.html. When watching the speech, answer the following questions: This discussion paper would allow you to consider both the value of a college education (p.B. Collect evidence of what allows someone to do, what another person without a college education might not be able to do), while focusing on the impact of rising tuition fees on working-class and/or middle-class families.
who may be most affected by rising costs. .